Se conformer ou non à une mesure de poli que publique de sécurité rou ère : Comment expliquer ou prédire Tome 1 : Note de synthèse HABILITATION A DIRIGER DES RECHERCHES Men on : Psychologie Sociale - Archive ouverte HAL Access content directly
Habilitation À Diriger Des Recherches Year : 2023

Se conformer ou non à une mesure de poli que publique de sécurité rou ère : Comment expliquer ou prédire Tome 1 : Note de synthèse HABILITATION A DIRIGER DES RECHERCHES Men on : Psychologie Sociale

Abstract

The aim of this work is to idenƟfy key factors and propose a model to explain or predict compliance with a public road safety policy. It is not so much a quesƟon of knowing whether a measure is "acceptable", "acceptability" which we define in this work by the fact of "being or not being favourable to" but which will have to be defined more precisely in future work, but of knowing the reasons which will lead users to comply or not with a given measure. Such an approach therefore takes into account both incenƟves and coercive measures (penalƟes, etc.).. Beyond that, it is a quesƟon of idenƟfying the points of vigilance to be taken into account when studying compliance with a public road safety policy measure (PRSP). This type of approach has been widely developed in the field of intelligent transport systems (ITS) and the quesƟon arises as to whether it is relevant for assessing compliance with a PRSP measure. The aim of this work is to provide scienƟfic knowledge on a subject that has not yet been studied to any great extent, and to respond to a strong demand from public authoriƟes, by ulƟmately offering a decision-making tool. Unlike the acceptability of STIs, where research is based on several models, the acceptability of PRSPs remains liƩle studied and no theoreƟcal model has yet been proposed. In current research on the acceptability of PRSPs, researchers focus on a parƟcular public policy and try to idenƟfy the explanatory and predicƟve factors, parƟcularly in terms of reliability, equity, effecƟveness, social norms and infringement of freedom. However, they do not aƩempt to model the interacƟons that may exist between these factors. Based on the exisƟng literature on the acceptability of STIs, the aim of our work is first to define the variables that need to be taken into account, to consider their relevance to the subject under study and to adapt them where necessary. Our work began with the Svrai project. Its aim was to fit vehicles with data recorders and thus gather geolocalised informaƟon on driver behaviour in terms of speed, acceleraƟon and braking, with a view to determining the most dangerous areas of the infrastructure. Our objecƟve was to idenƟfy the factors that explain and predict the driving of vehicles fiƩed with these devices, both before and aŌer the users have used them. Based on this research, we aƩempted to idenƟfy factors from the literature on the acceptability of new technologies that would be relevant to the study of compliance with PRSP measures, those that should be discarded and those that should be added (Chapter 2). The reducƟon in speed on two-way roads without a centre divider enabled us to test the factors idenƟfied in the previous stage. Different survey waves were carried out on a representaƟve sample of the French populaƟon at four different Ɵmes (one survey wave before and three survey 1 waves aŌer the introducƟon of the measure). The aim of this work was to make an aƩempt at modelling, but also to make a disƟncƟon between "legiƟmacy" (Varet et al., 2021), which is defined as "the properƟes that individuals associate with a given traffic rule, which promotes acceptance of its implementaƟon and applicaƟon and encourages individuals to comply with the resulƟng prescripƟons" (p.14), and "acceptability" (chapter 3). Various theories used in social psychology provide a more reliable model. For example, some studies have shown a strong link between social representaƟons and the acceptability of speed governors and speed limiters (L'Heureux, 2009), while others have used stress models to study coping or avoidance strategies (Hamelin and EyssarƟer, 2014). Another objecƟve of our work has been to consider the contribuƟon of other theories from social psychology, such as the theory of social representaƟons (Chapter 4) or stress models (Chapter 5), in order to see to what extent they can improve the predicƟvity of the models and above all to understand the phenomena involved. The PRSP measure on which we have based our thinking is automaƟc speed radars and their impact on police officers, who are in charge of implemenƟng them, and professional road users, who are the intended beneficiaries of the measure. As far as professional road users are concerned, thanks to driver assistance tools, the new driving pracƟces are unusual but consistent with their social representaƟon. We assume that this is a gradual transformaƟon (Flament, 2001; Moliner, 2001) of the social representaƟon of the profession. On the other hand, as far as the police are concerned, the pracƟces associated with the ETED run counter to the social representaƟon of the profession on several points, such as contact with users, maintaining public order and crime prevenƟon. However, no change in representaƟon was observed. There are several possible explanaƟons for this. Firstly, the pracƟces generated by the tool are offset by other behaviours consistent with the profession (such as the use of 'binocular' cameras) which may counterbalance and prevent a change in the social representaƟon of the profession. Another interpretaƟon could be linked to the perceived reversibility of the situaƟon. For example, the automaƟc camera is imposed by a hierarchical organisaƟon that has the power to free up police officers by entrusƟng its use to others, such as agents from the Ministry of Ecology. However, this is not the message the officers received from their superiors, who confirmed to us that this opƟon had been ruled out. The stress models used provide a relevant framework for understanding the impact of speed cameras on the work tasks and movements of those responsible for installing and implemenƟng them, as well as those for whom they are intended. They help to understand the constraints weighing on the professional acƟvity and 2 also the skills acquired or the adaptaƟon strategies put in place to reduce them. The results are counter-intuiƟve. It is the professionals responsible for the operaƟon of the system and therefore, in France, the representaƟves of the public authoriƟes, who seem to be having the most difficulty with the deployment of automated systems. The explanaƟons given are the amplifying role of the constraints generated by the interviewees' social environment, the threat to their professional idenƟty and the limited room for manoeuvre they have to adapt to the system. On the other hand, mobility professionals, those whose work requires them to travel by road and who have a high probability of losing driving licence points and receiving fines, appear to be much less affected by the system. Among the explanaƟons put forward are the considerable autonomy these professionals have in planning and carrying out their journeys, a social environment with few constraints and, above all, the development of adaptaƟon strategies that are parƟcularly effecƟve in reducing the stress generated by speed cameras. It is the on-board technological equipment with which the interviewees have equipped their cars that enables them to adapt effecƟvely to automaƟc speed cameras. In the literature on PRSPs, the quesƟon researchers try to answer is: is this measure acceptable or not? However, the ulƟmate aim of any acceptability/acceptance study is to actually change pracƟces in the expected direcƟon. What's more, the modificaƟon of pracƟces is not governed by the law of all or nothing ("I SYSTEMATICALLY or NEVER comply with the measure") (chapter 6). Indeed, while the ulƟmate aim of any public policy is to change pracƟces, the theory of condiƟonality (Gaymard, 2007) and even work on perverse norms (Perez et al, 2002) show that, for road users, certain driving situaƟons legiƟmise noncompliance with the legal rules of the road (e.g. not complying with speed limits in a straight line). Thus, the fact that road users support a public policy does not necessarily mean that they will systemaƟcally comply with it. Depending on the driving context (weather condiƟons, whether or not there are passengers in the vehicle, whether or not they are in a hurry, etc.), users may or may not comply with a PRSP measure. In addiƟon, the introducƟon of a measure will have an impact on the driving behaviour associated with it. For example, we have shown in the experiment aimed at regulaƟng traffic between lanes that this measure affected the control of rear-view mirrors or the wheel posiƟon of light vehicle (LV) users, or led to new posiƟve or negaƟve behaviours in other areas, for example the reducƟon in speed on two-way roads without a central separator led to an increase in vandalism of automaƟc speed cameras. In the same spirit, a public policy is generally implemented independently but also evaluated independently of other public policies. We assume that the introducƟon of a new public policy is likely to have an impact on the acceptability of exisƟng PRSPs. For example, the introducƟon of the V80 in rural areas may have 3 had a collateral impact on the acceptability of speed in urban areas. On a different note, research currently being conducted by M-A Granié is based on the hypothesis that measures to curb the COVID 19 pandemic (a public health measure) have had an impact on compliance with road safety rules (and therefore probably on their acceptability). However, the quesƟon remains even for exisƟng PRSPs: PRSPs are evaluated independently of each other. We assume that there is an interacƟon effect between PRSPs, and this is precisely what we propose to study in order to fill the theoreƟcal void on this subject. As menƟoned earlier, PRSPs are studied in isolaƟon as if no other element could have an impact on them. SomeƟmes, however, they receive so much media coverage and provoke such strong reacƟons that we wonder about the effect observed on pracƟces; is it really caused by the PRSP studied? It is indeed possible that other factors may have had an impact on the results observed (for example, the yellow waistcoat movement in the V80 study). Here again, the literature is nonexistent. With regard to the model we propose (Chapter 7), in line with the work of Varet et al. (2021), we believe that the variables relaƟng to the impact of the measure on user behaviour are mediaƟng variables in the relaƟonship between legiƟmacy, intra-individual variables, variables unrelated to the targeted behaviour, variables related to the targeted behaviour and behavioural intenƟon. However, we have some reservaƟons about the link between legiƟmacy and self-reported behaviour, which could be mediated solely by affecƟve aƫtude and not by all the variables referring to the direct link between the individual and the death. Behavioural intenƟon will itself have an effect on self-reported behaviours. FacilitaƟng condiƟons will have an impact on self-reported behaviour and not on behavioural intenƟon. The percepƟon of the sancƟon will have a negaƟve effect on internalisaƟon but may have an effect on behavioural intenƟon, which in turn will have an effect on behaviour. Indeed, it is possible to comply with a rule without internalising it, due to perceived external pressures (Deci and Ryan, 2008). The social context and demographic variables will play a moderaƟng role. We also assume that intra-individual variables will have an effect both on psychological variables related to the job and on those related to the measure. With regard to the model for professionals (Chapter 7), we believe that the variables relaƟng to the impact of the measure on the respondent's behaviour mediate the relaƟonship between legiƟmacy, intra-individual variables, workrelated variables and behavioural intenƟon. Behavioural intenƟon will itself have an effect on self-reported behaviour. FacilitaƟng condiƟons will have an impact on selfreported behaviour and not on behavioural intenƟon. As with the user model, we believe that the link between self-reported behaviour and legiƟmacy could be mediated by affecƟve aƫtude or by the set of variables relaƟng to the impact of the measure on the respondent's behaviour. However, this point will need to be tested 4 in future research. We also assume that the intra-individual variables will have an effect both on the psychological variables related to the job and on those related to the measure. The aim of this work is to propose a model of compliance with PRSP measures essenƟally for road users, in other words the final recipients of the measure, the work for which the work is most accomplished, but also a model for those in charge of its implementaƟon. The final chapter (Chapter 8) deals with future research. The first objecƟve is to develop a model of the acceptability-acceptance of public policies. The model we presented in the previous chapter is a first draŌ that needs to be tested and most certainly improved. The aim would therefore be to test this model on different road safety policy measures in order to see the interacƟons between the different factors and then to think about a possible improvement in its effecƟveness in explaining compliance with a PRSP measure. The other point in this area will be to study the evoluƟon of a policy over a relaƟvely long period of Ɵme, i.e. several years. Generally speaking, studies focus on an evaluaƟon, at best, post and ante, i.e. in 2 phases. However, the idea would be to study this development over a longer period and the possible interacƟons with other PRSP measures. It will also be a quesƟon of conƟnuing this work aimed at establishing the link between the acceptability of ITS and the acceptability of RH public policy measures. Indeed, the introducƟon of an RSPP measure by agents may seem like the introducƟon of a new tool, but if this is not the case, it may at least have an impact on the professional tasks to be carried out. In addiƟon, we believe that further reading of the literature on work and organisaƟonal psychology is needed to gain a beƩer understanding of the factors to be taken into account in the implementaƟon of this measure.
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tel-04431839 , version 1 (01-02-2024)

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Chloé Eyssar. Se conformer ou non à une mesure de poli que publique de sécurité rou ère : Comment expliquer ou prédire Tome 1 : Note de synthèse HABILITATION A DIRIGER DES RECHERCHES Men on : Psychologie Sociale. Sciences de l'Homme et Société. Université de Lyon 2, 2023. ⟨tel-04431839⟩
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