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Journal Articles Machine Learning Year : 2022

On the robustness of randomized classifiers to adversarial examples


This paper investigates the theory of robustness against adversarial attacks. We focus on randomized classifiers (i.e. classifiers that output random variables) and provide a thorough analysis of their behavior through the lens of statistical learning theory and information theory. To this aim, we introduce a new notion of robustness for randomized classifiers, enforcing local Lipschitzness using probability metrics. Equipped with this definition, we make two new contributions. The first one consists in devising a new upper bound on the adversarial generalization gap of randomized classifiers. More precisely, we devise bounds on the generalization gap and the adversarial gap i.e. the gap between the risk and the worst-case risk under attack) of randomized classifiers. The second contribution presents a yet simple but efficient noise injection method to design robust randomized classifiers. We show that our results are applicable to a wide range of machine learning models under mild hypotheses. We further corroborate our findings with experimental results using deep neural networks on standard image datasets, namely CIFAR-10 and CIFAR-100. On these tasks, we manage to design robust models that simultaneously achieve state-of-the-art accuracy (over 0.82 clean accuracy on CIFAR-10) and enjoy guaranteed robust accuracy bounds (0.45 against ℓ 2 adversaries with magnitude 0.5 on CIFAR-10).
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Dates and versions

hal-03916842 , version 1 (31-12-2022)



Rafael Pinot, Laurent Meunier, Florian Yger, Cédric Gouy-Pailler, Yann Chevaleyre, et al.. On the robustness of randomized classifiers to adversarial examples. Machine Learning, 2022, 111 (9), pp.3425-3457. ⟨10.1007/s10994-022-06216-6⟩. ⟨hal-03916842⟩
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