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Journal Articles Journal of Fluid Mechanics Year : 2019

Steepened Mach waves near supersonic jets: study of azimuthal structure and generation process using conditional averages

Abstract

The azimuthal structure and the generation process of steepened acoustic waves are investigated in the near field of temporal round jets at Mach numbers of 2 and 3. Initially, the shear layers of the jets are in a laminar state and display instability waves whose main properties are close to those predicted from linear temporal analysis. Then, they transition to a turbulent state and generate high-intensity Mach waves displaying sharp compressions typical of those recorded for jets producing crackle noise. These waves are first shown to be poorly reproduced when only the axisymmetric mode is considered, but to be well captured with the first five azimuthal modes. Their generation process is investigated by performing conditional averages of the flow and acoustic fields triggered by the detection of intense positive pressure peak close to the jets. No steepened waves are visible in the conditionally-averaged pressure profiles when the procedure involves only one azimuthal mode at a time. However, sharp compressions are obtained based on the first five modes taken together. In that case, the steep compressions are correlated over a limited portion of the jet circumference and are steeper as more azimuthal modes are considered. Moreover, a direct link is established between the steepened waves and the supersonic convection of large-scale coherent flow structures located in the supersonic core of the jets. This indicates that these waves constitute an extreme, nonlinear case of Mach wave radiation by these structures. In addition, the capacity of flow structures to generate sharp, steepened waves is related to their shapes. More particularly, flow structures with a large extent in the radial direction are shown to produce stronger and steeper Mach waves than those that are elongated in the flow direction.
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Dates and versions

hal-02341714 , version 1 (24-11-2020)

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Pierre Pineau, Christophe Bogey. Steepened Mach waves near supersonic jets: study of azimuthal structure and generation process using conditional averages. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 2019, 880, pp.594-619. ⟨10.1017/jfm.2019.729⟩. ⟨hal-02341714⟩
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