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Journal Articles Energies Year : 2023

Multi-Agent DDPG Based Electric Vehicles Charging Station Recommendation

Khalil Bachiri
Ali Yahyaouy
Hamid Gualous
  • Function : Author
Younes Bennani
  • Function : Author
Philippe Makany
  • Function : Author
Nicoleta Rogovschi
  • Function : Author


Electric vehicles (EVs) are a sustainable transportation solution with environmental benefits and energy efficiency. However, their popularity has raised challenges in locating appropriate charging stations, especially in cities with limited infrastructure and dynamic charging demands. To address this, we propose a multi-agent deep deterministic policy gradient (MADDPG) method for optimal EV charging station recommendations, considering real-time traffic conditions. Our approach aims to minimize total travel time in a stochastic environment for efficient smart transportation management. We adopt a centralized learning and decentralized execution strategy, treating each region of charging stations as an individual agent. Agents cooperate to recommend optimal charging stations based on various incentive functions and competitive contexts. The problem is modeled as a Markov game, suitable for analyzing multi-agent decisions in stochastic environments. Intelligent transportation systems provide us with traffic information, and each charging station feeds relevant data to the agents. Our MADDPG method is challenged with a substantial number of EV requests, enabling efficient handling of dynamic charging demands. Simulation experiments compare our method with DDPG and deterministic approaches, considering different distributions and EV numbers. The results highlight MADDPG’s superiority, emphasizing its value for sustainable urban mobility and efficient EV charging station scheduling.

Dates and versions

hal-04366014 , version 1 (28-12-2023)



Khalil Bachiri, Ali Yahyaouy, Hamid Gualous, Maria Malek, Younes Bennani, et al.. Multi-Agent DDPG Based Electric Vehicles Charging Station Recommendation. Energies, 2023, 16 (16), pp.6067. ⟨10.3390/en16166067⟩. ⟨hal-04366014⟩
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