Association of Delayed Sleep/Wake Rhythm with Depression During the First COVID-19 Lockdown in France - Archive ouverte HAL Access content directly
Journal Articles Nature and Science of Sleep Year : 2022

Association of Delayed Sleep/Wake Rhythm with Depression During the First COVID-19 Lockdown in France

Abstract

The containment of the population during the COVID-19 pandemic led to the emergence or recurrence of psychiatric conditions and sleep disorders. The influence of sleep/wake rhythm on mental health is well known. The objective of our study was to evaluate the link between the shift in sleep/wake rhythm and the presence of depressive symptoms during the March to May 2020 lockdown in the French population. Participants and Methods: Participants (n = 2513) were recruited via newspapers and social networks in March 2020. We evaluated i) the chronotype before and during the lockdown, assessed by the change in mid-sleep time on work-free days corrected for sleep debt on workdays (delta MSFsc); ii) morningness-eveningness circadian preference (Horne & Ostberg questionnaire); iii) depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9, PHQ-9). The delta MSFsc and the PHQ-9 score were compared between circadian preference types. A multivariate model adjusted for age, sex, circadian preference, housing type, and marital status was used to assess the influence of delta MSFsc on the PHQ-9 score in the whole population. Results: The population consisted of 77% women, of median (IQR) age 39 (30-48) years. Compared with the pre-lockdown period, the median (IQR) MSFsc was shifted by 30 (0-66) min during the lockdown, with a significant difference between evening [60 (15-120) min], morning [15 (0-46) min] and neutral [30 (0-70) min] circadian type individuals, p < 0.001. One-third of all participants had moderate to severe depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ≥ 10). A 1-hour shift in MSFsc was associated with a 0.50-point increase [95% CI (0.28; 0.72), p < 0.001] in the PHQ-9. Conclusion: A phase delay in the chronotype was observed in the general population during lockdown. Such disruption was associated with depressive symptoms but the direction of the relationship remains hypothetical. The impact on mental health of preventive measures targeting the sleep/wake rhythm in this context needs further evaluation.
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hal-04188551 , version 1 (25-08-2023)

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Juliette Felician, Filipe Galvão, Mylène Lefebvre, Mikaïl Nourredine, Laure Peter-Derex. Association of Delayed Sleep/Wake Rhythm with Depression During the First COVID-19 Lockdown in France. Nature and Science of Sleep, 2022, 14, pp.1545-1557. ⟨10.2147/nss.s369859⟩. ⟨hal-04188551⟩
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