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Journal Articles Journal of Sound and Vibration Year : 2023

Large Eddy Simulation of the ACAT1 fan stage for broadband noise prediction

Abstract

A numerical study is carried out to assess the aerodynamic and noise radiation specific features of the ACAT1 fan stage, which was tested in the framework of the European project TurbonoiseBB. This study deals with the prediction of the broadband noise radiated by the fan stage at approach conditions, and particularly focuses on the rotor–stator interaction (RSI) noise, which results from the impact of the fan wakes onto the outlet guide vanes (OGV). To this end, two wall-modeled Large Eddy Simulations (LES) with different levels of mesh refinement have been performed on the full fan-OGV stage. The finer mesh significantly improved the aerodynamic predictions in terms of mean flow profiles, but also in terms of RMS profiles and velocity spectra, for which significant disparities are highlighted for the coarser LES. Only slight disparities regarding the turbulent content of the flow remain for the finer LES. The typical flow features at approach conditions are examined and the noise sources on both the stator and the rotor are analyzed, revealing the presence of additional broadband noise sources. Noise predictions are performed by using the free-field Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) analogy, and Goldstein’s in-duct acoustic analogy informed with the pressure fluctuations recorded on the stator and rotor surfaces. FW-H predictions of the stator noise, though well recovering the shape of the experimental spectra, overestimate the radiated noise especially upstream of the fan. Using the finer simulation data substantially reduces the gap with the measurements. Accounting for the duct effect on the sound propagation, further improves the predictions in terms of absolute levels, leading to a good agreement between the finer simulation and the noise measurements. The breakdown of the different stator noise source contributions, in conjunction with rotor broadband noise predictions made it possible to confirm the presence of additional significant broadband noise sources, questioning the common assumption considering the RSI sources as the only dominant fan noise mechanism at approach conditions.
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Dates and versions

hal-04152947 , version 1 (05-07-2023)

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Danny Lewis, Stéphane Moreau, Marc Jacob, Marlène Sanjosé. Large Eddy Simulation of the ACAT1 fan stage for broadband noise prediction. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 2023, 565, pp.117888. ⟨10.1016/j.jsv.2023.117888⟩. ⟨hal-04152947⟩
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