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Journal Articles Nuclear Materials and Energy Year : 2023

Micron-sized dust and nanoparticles produced in the WEST tokamak


Highlights : Tungsten nanoparticles produced in a tokamak of tungsten divertor • Micron-sized tungsten dust particles emitted during off normal events • Helium nanobubbles produced at the surface of tungsten dust particles of a tokamak Abstract: Two populations of dust particles were found during the first phase of operation of WEST. The one that dominates by size and weight comes from the delamination of tungsten coatings covering graphite tiles and the emission of droplets of molten materials during off-normal events. Sizes vary from several microns to tens of microns. More generally, micron-sized dust particles due to the erosion of all materials present in the vacuum vessel were collected. In addition, nanocavities were found at the surface of tungsten dust sampled after He plasmas and were attributed to He trapping in the form of nanobubbles. Tungsten nanoparticles constitute the second unexpected dust population. They are dominant by their number and were essentially found at the surface of micron-sized particles. They may result either from the condensation of an oversaturated vapor above molten tungsten or come from ion-neutral clusters growing in plasma regions of low temperature until the appearance of solid particles.
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Dates and versions

hal-04086324 , version 1 (02-05-2023)
hal-04086324 , version 2 (20-07-2023)





C Arnas, A Campos, M Diez, Samuel Peillon, C Martin, et al.. Micron-sized dust and nanoparticles produced in the WEST tokamak. Nuclear Materials and Energy, 2023, 36, pp.101471. ⟨10.1016/j.nme.2023.101471⟩. ⟨hal-04086324v2⟩
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