Global maps of soil temperature - Archive ouverte HAL Access content directly
Journal Articles Global Change Biology Year : 2022

Global maps of soil temperature

Jonas Lembrechts (1) , Johan van den Hoogen (2) , Juha Aalto (3) , Michael Ashcroft (4) , Pieter de Frenne (5) , Julia Kemppinen (6) , Martin Kopecký (7) , Miska Luoto (8) , Ilya Maclean (9) , Thomas Crowther (2) , Joseph Bailey (10) , Stef Haesen (11) , David Klinges (12, 13) , Pekka Niittynen (8) , Brett Scheffers (12) , Koenraad van Meerbeek (11) , Peter Aartsma (14) , Otar Abdalaze (15) , Mehdi Abedi (16) , Rien Aerts (17) , Negar Ahmadian (16) , Antje Ahrends (18) , Juha Alatalo (19) , Jake Alexander (2) , Camille Nina Allonsius (20) , Jan Altman (7, 21) , Christof Ammann (22) , Christian Andres (2) , Christopher Andrews (23) , Jonas Ardö (24) , Nicola Arriga (25) , Alberto Arzac (26) , Valeria Aschero (27) , Rafael Assis (28) , Jakob Johann Assmann (29) , Maaike Bader (30) , Khadijeh Bahalkeh (16) , Peter Barančok (31) , Isabel Barrio (32) , Agustina Barros (33, 34) , Matti Barthel (2) , Edmund Basham (12) , Marijn Bauters (5) , Manuele Bazzichetto (35) , Luca Belelli Marchesini (36) , Michael Bell (37) , Juan Benavides (38) , José Luis Benito Alonso (39) , Bernd Berauer (40, 41) , Jarle Bjerke (42) , Robert Björk (43) , Mats Björkman (43) , Katrin Björnsdóttir (43) , Benjamin Blonder (44) , Pascal Boeckx (5) , Julia Boike (45, 46) , Stef Bokhorst (17) , Bárbara Brum (47) , Josef Brůna (7) , Nina Buchmann (2) , Pauline Buysse (48) , José Luís Camargo (47) , Otávio Campoe (49) , Onur Candan (50) , Rafaella Canessa (30, 51) , Nicoletta Cannone (52) , Michele Carbognani (53) , Jofre Carnicer (54) , Angélica Casanova‐katny (55) , Simone Cesarz (56) , Bogdan Chojnicki (57) , Philippe Choler (58, 59) , Steven Chown (60) , Edgar Cifuentes (61) , Marek Čiliak (62) , Tamara Contador (63) , Peter Convey (64) , Elisabeth Cooper (65) , Edoardo Cremonese (66) , Salvatore Curasi (67) , Robin Curtis (9) , Maurizio Cutini (68) , C. Johan Dahlberg (69) , Gergana Daskalova (70) , Miguel Angel de Pablo (71) , Stefano Della Chiesa (72) , Jürgen Dengler (56, 73, 41) , Bart Deronde (74) , Patrice Descombes (75) , Valter Di Cecco (76) , Michele Di Musciano (77) , Jan Dick (23) , Romina Dimarco (78) , Jiri Dolezal (7, 79) , Ellen Dorrepaal (80) , Jiří Dušek (81) , Nico Eisenhauer (82, 56) , Lars Eklundh (24) , Todd Erickson (83) , Brigitta Erschbamer (84) , Werner Eugster (2) , Robert Ewers (85) , Dan Exton (86) , Nicolas Fanin (87) , Fatih Fazlioglu (50) , Iris Feigenwinter (2) , Giuseppe Fenu , Olga Ferlian , M. Rosa Fernández Calzado , Eduardo Fernández‐pascual , Manfred Finckh , Rebecca Finger Higgens , t'Ai Forte , Erika Freeman , Esther Frei , Eduardo Fuentes‐lillo , Rafael García , María García , Charly Géron , Mana Gharun , Dany Ghosn , Khatuna Gigauri , Anne Gobin , Ignacio Goded , Mathias Goeckede , Felix Gottschall , Keith Goulding , Sanne Govaert , Bente Jessen Graae , Sarah Greenwood , Caroline Greiser , Achim Grelle , Benoit Guénard , Mauro Guglielmin , Joannès Guillemot (88, 89) , Peter Haase (90) , Sylvia Haider , Aud Halbritter , Maroof Hamid , Albin Hammerle , Arndt Hampe (91) , Siri Haugum , Lucia Hederová , Bernard Heinesch , Carole Helfter , Daniel Hepenstrick , Maximiliane Herberich , Mathias Herbst , Luise Hermanutz , David Hik , Raúl Hoffrén , Jürgen Homeier , Lukas Hörtnagl , Toke Høye , Filip Hrbacek , Kristoffer Hylander , Hiroki Iwata , Marcin Antoni Jackowicz‐korczynski , Hervé Jactel (91) , Järvi Järveoja , Szymon Jastrzębowski , Anke Jentsch , Juan Jiménez , Ingibjörg Jónsdóttir , Tommaso Jucker , Alistair Jump , Radoslaw Juszczak , Róbert Kanka , Vít Kašpar , George Kazakis , Julia Kelly , Anzar Khuroo , Leif Klemedtsson , Marcin Klisz , Natascha Kljun , Alexander Knohl , Johannes Kobler , Jozef Kollár , Martyna Kotowska , Bence Kovács , Juergen Kreyling , Andrea Lamprecht , Simone Lang , Christian Larson , Keith Larson , Kamil Laska , Guerric Maire (88, 89) , Rachel Leihy , Luc Lens , Bengt Liljebladh , Annalea Lohila , Juan Lorite , Benjamin Loubet (48) , Joshua Lynn , Martin Macek , Roy Mackenzie , Enzo Magliulo , Regine Maier , Francesco Malfasi , František Máliš , Matěj Man , Giovanni Manca , Antonio Manco , Tanguy Manise , Paraskevi Manolaki , Felipe Marciniak , Radim Matula , Ana Clara Mazzolari , Sergiy Medinets , Volodymyr Medinets , Camille Meeussen , Sonia Merinero , Rita de Cássia Guimarães Mesquita , Katrin Meusburger , Filip Meysman , Sean Michaletz , Ann Milbau , Dmitry Moiseev , Pavel Moiseev , Andrea Mondoni , Ruth Monfries , Leonardo Montagnani , Mikel Moriana‐armendariz , Umberto Morra Di Cella , Martin Mörsdorf , Jonathan Mosedale , Lena Muffler , Miriam Muñoz‐rojas , Jonathan Myers , Isla Myers‐smith , Laszlo Nagy , Marianna Nardino , Ilona Naujokaitis‐lewis , Emily Newling , Lena Nicklas , Georg Niedrist , Armin Niessner , Mats Nilsson , Signe Normand , Marcelo Nosetto , Yann Nouvellon (88, 89) , Martin Nuñez , Romà Ogaya , Jérôme Ogée (87) , Joseph Okello , Janusz Olejnik , Jørgen Eivind Olesen , Øystein Opedal , Simone Orsenigo , Andrej Palaj , Timo Pampuch , Alexey Panov , Meelis Pärtel , Ada Pastor , Aníbal Pauchard , Harald Pauli , Marian Pavelka , William Pearse , Matthias Peichl , Loïc Pellissier , Rachel Penczykowski , Josep Penuelas , Matteo Petit Bon , Alessandro Petraglia , Shyam Phartyal , Gareth Phoenix , Casimiro Pio , Andrea Pitacco , Camille Pitteloud , Roman Plichta , Francesco Porro , Miguel Portillo‐estrada , Jérôme Poulenard (92) , Rafael Poyatos , Anatoly Prokushkin , Radoslaw Puchalka , Mihai Pușcaș , Dajana Radujković , Krystal Randall , Amanda Ratier Backes , Sabine Remmele , Wolfram Remmers , D Renault (35, 93) , Anita Risch , Christian Rixen , Sharon Robinson , Bjorn J.M. Robroek , Adrian Rocha , Christian Rossi , Graziano Rossi , Olivier Roupsard (88, 89, 94) , Alexey Rubtsov , Patrick Saccone , Clotilde Sagot , Jhonatan Sallo Bravo , Cinthya Santos , Judith Sarneel , Tobias Scharnweber , Jonas Schmeddes , Marius Schmidt , Thomas Scholten , Max Schuchardt , Naomi Schwartz , Tony Scott , Julia Seeber , Ana Cristina Segalin de Andrade , Tim Seipel , Philipp Semenchuk , Rebecca Senior , Josep Serra-Diaz (95) , Piotr Sewerniak , Ankit Shekhar , Nikita Sidenko , Lukas Siebicke , Laura Siegwart Collier , Elizabeth Simpson , David Siqueira , Zuzana Sitková , Johan Six , Marko Smiljanic , Stuart Smith , Sarah Smith‐tripp , Ben Somers , Mia Vedel Sørensen , José João L. L. Souza , Bartolomeu Israel Souza , Arildo Souza Dias , Marko Spasojevic , James Speed , Fabien Spicher (96) , Angela Stanisci , Klaus Steinbauer , Rainer Steinbrecher , Michael Steinwandter , Michael Stemkovski , Jörg Stephan , Christian Stiegler , Stefan Stoll , Martin Svátek , Miroslav Svoboda , Torbern Tagesson , Andrew Tanentzap , Franziska Tanneberger , Jean‐paul Theurillat , Haydn Thomas , Andrew Thomas , Katja Tielbörger , Marcello Tomaselli , Urs Albert Treier , Mario Trouillier , Pavel Dan Turtureanu , Rosamond Tutton , Vilna Tyystjärvi , Masahito Ueyama , Karol Ujházy , Mariana Ujházyová , Domas Uogintas , Anastasiya Urban , Josef Urban , Marek Urbaniak , Tudor‐mihai Ursu , Francesco Primo Vaccari , Stijn van de Vondel , Liesbeth van den Brink , Maarten van Geel , Vigdis Vandvik , Pieter Vangansbeke , Andrej Varlagin , G.F. Veen , Elmar Veenendaal , Susanna Venn , Hans Verbeeck , Erik Verbrugggen , Frank G.A. Verheijen , Luis Villar , Luca Vitale , Pascal Vittoz , Maria Vives‐ingla , Jonathan von Oppen , Josefine Walz , Runxi Wang , Yifeng Wang , Robert Way , Ronja Wedegärtner , Robert Weigel , Jan Wild , Matthew Wilkinson , Martin Wilmking , Lisa Wingate (87) , Manuela Winkler , Sonja Wipf , Georg Wohlfahrt , Georgios Xenakis , Yan Yang , Zicheng Yu , Kailiang Yu , Florian Zellweger , Jian Zhang , Zhaochen Zhang , Peng Zhao , Klaudia Ziemblińska , Reiner Zimmermann , Shengwei Zong , Viacheslav Zyryanov , Ivan Nijs , Jonathan Roger Michel Henri Lenoir (96)
1 Universiteit Antwerpen = University of Antwerpen [Antwerpen]
2 ETH Zürich - Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule - Swiss Federal Institute of Technology [Zürich]
3 FMI - Finnish Meteorological Institute
4 University of Wollongong [Australia]
5 UGENT - Universiteit Gent = Ghent University
6 University of Oulu
7 Institute of Botany
8 Helsingin yliopisto = Helsingfors universitet = University of Helsinki
9 University of Exeter
10 York St John University
11 KU Leuven - Catholic University of Leuven = Katholieke Universiteit Leuven
12 UF - University of Florida [Gainesville]
13 SERC - Smithsonian Environmental Research Center
14 USN - University of South-Eastern Norway
15 Ilia State University [Tbilisi]
16 Tarbiat Modares University [Tehran]
17 VU - Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam [Amsterdam]
18 Royal Botanic Garden [Edinburgh]
19 Qatar University
20 UA - University of Antwerp
21 CZU - Czech University of Life Sciences Prague
22 Agroscope
23 UKCEH - Centre for Ecology and Hydrology
24 Lund University
25 JRC - European Commission - Joint Research Centre [Ispra]
26 SibFU - Siberian Federal University
27 UNCUYO - Universidad Nacional de Cuyo [Mendoza]
28 UiO - University of Oslo
29 Aarhus University [Aarhus]
30 Philipps Universität Marburg = Philipps University of Marburg
31 Institute of Landscape Ecology of the Slovak Academy of Sciences
32 Agricultural University of Iceland
33 CONICET - Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas [Buenos Aires]
34 CONICET-IANIGLA - Instituto Argentino de Nivología, Glaciología y Ciencias Ambientales [Mendoza]
35 ECOBIO - Ecosystèmes, biodiversité, évolution [Rennes]
36 FEM - Fondazione Edmund Mach - Edmund Mach Foundation [Italie]
37 Forest Research [Great Britain]
38 PUJ - Pontificia Universidad Javeriana
39 adresse personnelle [Espagne]
40 University of Hohenheim
41 University of Bayreuth
42 NINA - Norwegian Institute for Nature Research
43 GU - Göteborgs Universitet = University of Gothenburg
44 UC Berkeley - University of California [Berkeley]
45 Alfred Wegener Institute [Potsdam]
46 HU Berlin - Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin = Humboldt University of Berlin = Université Humboldt de Berlin
47 INPA - Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia = National Institute of Amazonian Research
48 ECOSYS - Ecologie fonctionnelle et écotoxicologie des agroécosystèmes
49 UFLA - Universidade Federal de Lavras = Federal University of Lavras
50 Ordu University - Ordu Üniversitesi
51 Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen = University of Tübingen
52 Uninsubria - Universitá degli Studi dell’Insubria = University of Insubria [Varese]
53 UNIPR - Università degli studi di Parma = University of Parma
54 IRBio UB - Institut de Recerca de la Biodiversitat - Biodiversity Research Institute [Barcelona, Spain]
55 UCT - Universidad Católica de Temuco
56 iDiv - German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research
57 PULS - Poznan University of Life Sciences (Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy w Poznaniu)
58 LECA - Laboratoire d'Ecologie Alpine
59 LTSER Zone Atelier Alpes
60 Monash university
61 CAM - University of Cambridge [UK]
62 TUZVO - Technical University in Zvolen
63 Universidad Austral de Chile
64 BAS - British Antarctic Survey
65 UiT - The Arctic University of Norway [Tromsø, Norway]
66 ARAP Valle Aosta - Environmental Protection Agency of Aosta Valley = Agenzia regionale protezione ambiante Valle d'Aosta
67 UND - University of Notre Dame [Indiana]
68 ROMA TRE - Università degli Studi Roma Tre = Roma Tre University
69 Stockholm University
70 Edin. - University of Edinburgh
71 UAH - Universidad de Alcalá - University of Alcalá
72 TU Dresden - Technische Universität Dresden = Dresden University of Technology
73 ZHAW - Zürcher Hochschule für Angewandte Wissenschaften = Zurich University of Applied Sciences
74 VITO - Flemish Institute for Technological Research
75 WSL - Institut Fédéral de Recherches sur la Forêt, la Neige et le Paysage
76 Majella National Park - Parco Nazionale della Majella
77 UNIVAQ - University of L'Aquila [Italy]
78 IFAB - Instituto de Investigaciones Forestales y Agropecuarias Bariloche
79 University of South Bohemia
80 Umeå University, Sweden
81 CAS - Czech Academy of Sciences [Prague]
82 Leipzig University / Universität Leipzig
83 UWA - The University of Western Australia
84 Leopold Franzens Universität Innsbruck - University of Innsbruck
85 Imperial College London
86 Operation Wallacea Ltd
87 UMR ISPA - Interactions Sol Plante Atmosphère
88 UMR Eco&Sols - Ecologie fonctionnelle et biogéochimie des sols et des agro-écosystèmes
89 Cirad-PERSYST - Département Performances des systèmes de production et de transformation tropicaux
90 Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum [Frankfurt]
91 BioGeCo - Biodiversité, Gènes & Communautés
92 EDYTEM - Environnements, Dynamiques et Territoires de Montagne
93 IUF - Institut universitaire de France
94 IESOL - LMI IESOL Intensification Ecologique des Sols Cultivés en Afrique de l’Ouest [Dakar]
95 SILVA - SILVA
96 EDYSAN - Ecologie et Dynamique des Systèmes Anthropisés - UMR CNRS 7058 UPJV
Juha Aalto
Pieter de Frenne
Martin Kopecký
Ilya Maclean
Brett Scheffers
Juha Alatalo
  • Function : Author
Christof Ammann
  • Function : Author
Jonas Ardö
Rafael Assis
  • Function : Author
Pascal Boeckx
Josef Brůna
  • Function : Author
Steven Chown
  • Function : Author
Ellen Dorrepaal
Lars Eklundh
  • Function : Author
Dan Exton
  • Function : Author
Nicolas Fanin
Giuseppe Fenu
  • Function : Author
Olga Ferlian
  • Function : Author
M. Rosa Fernández Calzado
  • Function : Author
Eduardo Fernández‐pascual
  • Function : Author
Manfred Finckh
Rebecca Finger Higgens
  • Function : Author
t'Ai Forte
  • Function : Author
Erika Freeman
  • Function : Author
Esther Frei
  • Function : Author
Eduardo Fuentes‐lillo
  • Function : Author
Rafael García
  • Function : Author
María García
  • Function : Author
Charly Géron
Mana Gharun
Dany Ghosn
  • Function : Author
Khatuna Gigauri
  • Function : Author
Anne Gobin
  • Function : Author
Ignacio Goded
  • Function : Author
Mathias Goeckede
  • Function : Author
Felix Gottschall
  • Function : Author
Keith Goulding
  • Function : Author
Sanne Govaert
Bente Jessen Graae
  • Function : Author
Sarah Greenwood
  • Function : Author
Caroline Greiser
Achim Grelle
  • Function : Author
Benoit Guénard
Mauro Guglielmin
  • Function : Author
Sylvia Haider
Aud Halbritter
  • Function : Author
Maroof Hamid
  • Function : Author
Albin Hammerle
  • Function : Author
Arndt Hampe
Siri Haugum
  • Function : Author
Lucia Hederová
  • Function : Author
Bernard Heinesch
  • Function : Author
Carole Helfter
  • Function : Author
Daniel Hepenstrick
  • Function : Author
Maximiliane Herberich
  • Function : Author
Mathias Herbst
  • Function : Author
Luise Hermanutz
  • Function : Author
David Hik
  • Function : Author
Raúl Hoffrén
  • Function : Author
Jürgen Homeier
  • Function : Author
Lukas Hörtnagl
  • Function : Author
Toke Høye
  • Function : Author
Filip Hrbacek
  • Function : Author
Kristoffer Hylander
Hiroki Iwata
  • Function : Author
Hervé Jactel
Järvi Järveoja
  • Function : Author
Szymon Jastrzębowski
  • Function : Author
Anke Jentsch
Juan Jiménez
  • Function : Author
Ingibjörg Jónsdóttir
  • Function : Author
Tommaso Jucker
  • Function : Author
Alistair Jump
  • Function : Author
Radoslaw Juszczak
  • Function : Author
Róbert Kanka
  • Function : Author
Vít Kašpar
  • Function : Author
George Kazakis
  • Function : Author
Julia Kelly
  • Function : Author
Anzar Khuroo
  • Function : Author
Leif Klemedtsson
  • Function : Author
Marcin Klisz
  • Function : Author
Natascha Kljun
  • Function : Author
Alexander Knohl
Johannes Kobler
  • Function : Author
Jozef Kollár
  • Function : Author
Martyna Kotowska
  • Function : Author
Bence Kovács
  • Function : Author
Juergen Kreyling
  • Function : Author
Andrea Lamprecht
  • Function : Author
Simone Lang
  • Function : Author
Christian Larson
  • Function : Author
Keith Larson
  • Function : Author
Kamil Laska
  • Function : Author
Rachel Leihy
  • Function : Author
Luc Lens
  • Function : Author
Bengt Liljebladh
  • Function : Author
Annalea Lohila
Juan Lorite
  • Function : Author
Joshua Lynn
  • Function : Author
Martin Macek
Roy Mackenzie
  • Function : Author
Enzo Magliulo
  • Function : Author
Regine Maier
  • Function : Author
Francesco Malfasi
  • Function : Author
František Máliš
Matěj Man
  • Function : Author
Giovanni Manca
  • Function : Author
Antonio Manco
  • Function : Author
Tanguy Manise
  • Function : Author
Paraskevi Manolaki
  • Function : Author
Felipe Marciniak
  • Function : Author
Radim Matula
  • Function : Author
Ana Clara Mazzolari
  • Function : Author
Sergiy Medinets
  • Function : Author
Volodymyr Medinets
  • Function : Author
Camille Meeussen
Sonia Merinero
Katrin Meusburger
  • Function : Author
Filip Meysman
  • Function : Author
Sean Michaletz
Ann Milbau
Dmitry Moiseev
  • Function : Author
Pavel Moiseev
  • Function : Author
Andrea Mondoni
  • Function : Author
Ruth Monfries
  • Function : Author
Leonardo Montagnani
Mikel Moriana‐armendariz
  • Function : Author
Umberto Morra Di Cella
Martin Mörsdorf
  • Function : Author
Jonathan Mosedale
  • Function : Author
Lena Muffler
  • Function : Author
Miriam Muñoz‐rojas
  • Function : Author
Jonathan Myers
Isla Myers‐smith
  • Function : Author
Laszlo Nagy
  • Function : Author
Marianna Nardino
  • Function : Author
Ilona Naujokaitis‐lewis
  • Function : Author
Emily Newling
  • Function : Author
Lena Nicklas
  • Function : Author
Georg Niedrist
  • Function : Author
Armin Niessner
  • Function : Author
Mats Nilsson
Signe Normand
  • Function : Author
Marcelo Nosetto
  • Function : Author
Martin Nuñez
Romà Ogaya
  • Function : Author
Joseph Okello
  • Function : Author
Janusz Olejnik
  • Function : Author
Jørgen Eivind Olesen
  • Function : Author
Øystein Opedal
Simone Orsenigo
  • Function : Author
Andrej Palaj
  • Function : Author
Timo Pampuch
  • Function : Author
Alexey Panov
  • Function : Author
Meelis Pärtel
Ada Pastor
  • Function : Author
Aníbal Pauchard
Harald Pauli
  • Function : Author
Marian Pavelka
  • Function : Author
William Pearse
  • Function : Author
Matthias Peichl
Loïc Pellissier
Rachel Penczykowski
  • Function : Author
Josep Penuelas
Matteo Petit Bon
  • Function : Author
Alessandro Petraglia
  • Function : Author
Shyam Phartyal
  • Function : Author
Gareth Phoenix
  • Function : Author
Casimiro Pio
  • Function : Author
Andrea Pitacco
Camille Pitteloud
  • Function : Author
Roman Plichta
  • Function : Author
Francesco Porro
  • Function : Author
Miguel Portillo‐estrada
  • Function : Author
Rafael Poyatos
Anatoly Prokushkin
  • Function : Author
Radoslaw Puchalka
Mihai Pușcaș
  • Function : Author
Dajana Radujković
Krystal Randall
  • Function : Author
Amanda Ratier Backes
  • Function : Author
Sabine Remmele
  • Function : Author
Wolfram Remmers
  • Function : Author
Anita Risch
Christian Rixen
  • Function : Author
Sharon Robinson
Bjorn J.M. Robroek
  • Function : Author
Adrian Rocha
  • Function : Author
Christian Rossi
  • Function : Author
Graziano Rossi
  • Function : Author
Alexey Rubtsov
  • Function : Author
Patrick Saccone
  • Function : Author
Clotilde Sagot
  • Function : Author
Jhonatan Sallo Bravo
  • Function : Author
Cinthya Santos
  • Function : Author
Judith Sarneel
  • Function : Author
Tobias Scharnweber
  • Function : Author
Jonas Schmeddes
  • Function : Author
Marius Schmidt
Thomas Scholten
  • Function : Author
Max Schuchardt
  • Function : Author
Naomi Schwartz
Tony Scott
  • Function : Author
Julia Seeber
  • Function : Author
Tim Seipel
  • Function : Author
Philipp Semenchuk
  • Function : Author
Rebecca Senior
  • Function : Author
Josep Serra-Diaz
Piotr Sewerniak
  • Function : Author
Ankit Shekhar
  • Function : Author
Nikita Sidenko
  • Function : Author
Lukas Siebicke
  • Function : Author
Laura Siegwart Collier
  • Function : Author
Elizabeth Simpson
  • Function : Author
David Siqueira
  • Function : Author
Zuzana Sitková
  • Function : Author
Johan Six
Marko Smiljanic
  • Function : Author
Stuart Smith
  • Function : Author
Sarah Smith‐tripp
  • Function : Author
Ben Somers
  • Function : Author
Mia Vedel Sørensen
  • Function : Author
José João L. L. Souza
  • Function : Author
Bartolomeu Israel Souza
  • Function : Author
Arildo Souza Dias
  • Function : Author
Marko Spasojevic
  • Function : Author
James Speed
  • Function : Author
Angela Stanisci
Klaus Steinbauer
  • Function : Author
Rainer Steinbrecher
  • Function : Author
Michael Steinwandter
  • Function : Author
Michael Stemkovski
  • Function : Author
Jörg Stephan
Christian Stiegler
  • Function : Author
Stefan Stoll
  • Function : Author
Martin Svátek
  • Function : Author
Miroslav Svoboda
  • Function : Author
Torbern Tagesson
Andrew Tanentzap
  • Function : Author
Franziska Tanneberger
  • Function : Author
Jean‐paul Theurillat
  • Function : Author
Haydn Thomas
  • Function : Author
Andrew Thomas
Katja Tielbörger
  • Function : Author
Marcello Tomaselli
  • Function : Author
Urs Albert Treier
  • Function : Author
Mario Trouillier
  • Function : Author
Pavel Dan Turtureanu
  • Function : Author
Rosamond Tutton
  • Function : Author
Vilna Tyystjärvi
  • Function : Author
Masahito Ueyama
  • Function : Author
Karol Ujházy
  • Function : Author
Mariana Ujházyová
  • Function : Author
Domas Uogintas
  • Function : Author
Anastasiya Urban
  • Function : Author
Josef Urban
Marek Urbaniak
Tudor‐mihai Ursu
  • Function : Author
Francesco Primo Vaccari
  • Function : Author
Stijn van de Vondel
  • Function : Author
Liesbeth van den Brink
  • Function : Author
Maarten van Geel
  • Function : Author
Vigdis Vandvik
Pieter Vangansbeke
Andrej Varlagin
G.F. Veen
  • Function : Author
Elmar Veenendaal
  • Function : Author
Susanna Venn
Hans Verbeeck
Erik Verbrugggen
  • Function : Author
Frank G.A. Verheijen
  • Function : Author
Luis Villar
  • Function : Author
Luca Vitale
  • Function : Author
Pascal Vittoz
  • Function : Author
Maria Vives‐ingla
  • Function : Author
Jonathan von Oppen
  • Function : Author
Josefine Walz
  • Function : Author
Runxi Wang
  • Function : Author
Yifeng Wang
  • Function : Author
Robert Way
  • Function : Author
Ronja Wedegärtner
  • Function : Author
Robert Weigel
  • Function : Author
Jan Wild
  • Function : Author
Matthew Wilkinson
  • Function : Author
Martin Wilmking
  • Function : Author
Lisa Wingate
  • Function : Author
  • PersonId : 1136568
Manuela Winkler
  • Function : Author
Sonja Wipf
  • Function : Author
Georg Wohlfahrt
Georgios Xenakis
  • Function : Author
Yan Yang
  • Function : Author
Zicheng Yu
  • Function : Author
Kailiang Yu
  • Function : Author
Florian Zellweger
Jian Zhang
  • Function : Author
Zhaochen Zhang
  • Function : Author
Peng Zhao
Klaudia Ziemblińska
Reiner Zimmermann
  • Function : Author
Shengwei Zong
  • Function : Author
Viacheslav Zyryanov
  • Function : Author
Ivan Nijs

Abstract

Research in global change ecology relies heavily on global climatic grids derived from estimates of air temperature in open areas at around 2 m above the ground. These climatic grids do not reflect conditions below vegetation canopies and near the ground surface, where critical ecosystem functions occur and most terrestrial species reside. Here, we provide global maps of soil temperature and bioclimatic variables at a 1-km² resolution for 0-5 and 5-15 cm soil depth. These maps were created by calculating the difference (i.e., offset) between in-situ soil temperature measurements, based on time series from over 1200 1-km² pixels (summarized from 8500 unique temperature sensors) across all the world's major terrestrial biomes, and coarse-grained air temperature estimates from ERA5-Land (an atmospheric reanalysis by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts). We show that mean annual soil temperature differs markedly from the corresponding gridded air temperature, by up to 10°C (mean = 3.0 ± 2.1°C), with substantial variation across biomes and seasons. Over the year, soils in cold and/or dry biomes are substantially warmer (+3.6 ± 2.3°C) than gridded air temperature, whereas soils in warm and humid environments are on average slightly cooler (-0.7 ± 2.3°C). The observed substantial and biome-specific offsets emphasize that the projected impacts of climate and climate change on near-surface biodiversity and ecosystem functioning are inaccurately assessed when air rather than soil temperature is used, especially in cold environments. The global soil-related bioclimatic variables provided here are an important step forward for any application in ecology and related disciplines. Nevertheless, we highlight the need to fill remaining geographic gaps by collecting more in-situ measurements of microclimate conditions to further enhance the spatiotemporal resolution of global soil temperature products for ecological applications.
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hal-03518443 , version 1 (03-03-2022)

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Jonas Lembrechts, Johan van den Hoogen, Juha Aalto, Michael Ashcroft, Pieter de Frenne, et al.. Global maps of soil temperature. Global Change Biology, 2022, 28 (9), pp.3110-3144. ⟨10.1111/gcb.16060⟩. ⟨hal-03518443⟩
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