Eruptive history of the Late Quaternary Ciomadul (Csomád) volcano, East Carpathians, part II: magma output rates - Archive ouverte HAL Access content directly
Journal Articles Bulletin of Volcanology Year : 2019

Eruptive history of the Late Quaternary Ciomadul (Csomád) volcano, East Carpathians, part II: magma output rates

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Abstract

This study, which builds on high-precision unspiked Cassignol-Gillot K-Ar age determinations, presents an advanced DEM-based volumetrical analysis to infer long-term magma output rates for the Late Quaternary Ciomadul (Csomád) dacitic lava dome complex (East Carpathians, Romania). The volcanic field of Ciomadul developed on the erosional surface of Lower Cretaceous flysch and ~ 2 Ma old andesites and experienced an extended eruptive history from ~ 850 to < 30 ka. Predominantly effusive activity took place during the first stage (~ 850 to ~ 440 ka), producing volumetrically minor, isolated, peripheral domes. Subsequently, after a ~ 250 ky repose interval, a voluminous central dome cluster developed in the second stage (~ 200 to < 30 ka). During the youngest phase of evolution (~ 60 to < 30 ka), highly explosive eruptions also occurred, resulting in the formation of two craters (Mohos and St. Ana). The calculated ~ 8.00 ± 0.55 km3 total volume of the lava domes, which includes the related volcaniclastic (1.57 km3) as well as erosionally removed (0.18 km3) material, is in line with dimensions of other medium-sized dacitic lava domes worldwide. This volume was extruded at an average long-term magma output rate of 9.76 km3/My (0.0098 km3/ky). However, most of the domes (7.53 ± 0.51 km3) were formed in the 200 to < 30 ka period, implying a significantly increased magma output rate of 37.40 km3/My (0.0374 km3/ky), more than 30 times higher than in the first stage. Within these long-term trends, individual lava domes of Ciomadul (e.g. those with volumes between 0.02 and 0.40 km3) would have been emplaced at much higher rates over a period of years to tens of years. The active periods, lasting up to hundreds of years, would have been followed by repose periods ~ 30 times longer. The most recent eruption of Ciomadul has been dated here at 27.7 ± 1.4 ka. This age, which is in agreement with radiocarbon dates for the onset of lake sediment accumulation in St. Ana crater, dates fragmented lava blocks which are possibly related to a disrupted dome. This suggests that during the last, typically explosive, phase of Ciomadul, lava dome extrusion was still ongoing. In a global context, the analysis of the volumetric dynamism of Ciomadul’s activity gives insights into the temporal variations in magma output; at lava domes, short-term (day- or week-scale) eruption rates smooth out in long-term (millenia-scale) output rates which are tens of times lower.

Dates and versions

hal-02092552 , version 1 (08-04-2019)

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Cite

D. Karátson, T. Telbisz, S. Dibacto, P. Lahitte, A. Szakács, et al.. Eruptive history of the Late Quaternary Ciomadul (Csomád) volcano, East Carpathians, part II: magma output rates. Bulletin of Volcanology, 2019, 81: (28), ⟨10.1007/s00445-019-1287-8⟩. ⟨hal-02092552⟩
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