Effects of breed, feeding system, and lactation stage on milk fat characteristics and spontaneous lipolysis in dairy cows - Archive ouverte HAL Access content directly
Journal Articles Journal of Dairy Science Year : 2017

Effects of breed, feeding system, and lactation stage on milk fat characteristics and spontaneous lipolysis in dairy cows

Abstract

Spontaneous lipolysis (SL) is an enzymatic reaction which leads to a release of free fatty acids that can modify technological and sensory properties of milk and milk products. However, few studies have been done to assess the effect of feeding systems (FS) and breed on SL. Most of them were conducted in the 1980s and are not fully representative of cattle today. No previous study investigated the effect of cow breed at the whole-lactation scale. Thus, a trial was carried out to study the effects of 2 FS (high- and low-input FS) with 2 breeds [Holstein (HO) and Normande (NO)] during 1 entire lactation. Sixty-three cows were followed throughout 1 lactation. Cows were divided into 4 groups according to their breed and their FS. The high FS (HFS) consisted of a high-energy diet (in winter, corn silage with 30% concentrate; otherwise, pasture with 4 kg/d of concentrate) and the low FS (LFS) consisted of a low-energy diet (in winter, conserved grass with no concentrate; otherwise, pasture with no concentrate). The cows calved between January and March. Individual milk samples were collected every month from both morning and evening milkings for fat, protein, milk fat globule size, major fatty acids and proteins profiles, and SL determinations. Data were analyzed using the mixed procedure of SAS. The SL was higher in evening milks compared with morning milks. In early lactation, in evening milks, SL was higher in LFS than in HFS. No difference was shown according to the FS in mid and late lactation. Pasture was associated with low SL rate in mid lactation. The NO cows were less susceptible to SL during the entire lactation than HO cows. Finally, early and late lactation periods were identified as being more susceptible to SL, but this depended on breed and FS. During early lactation, HO cows and LFS were associated with higher levels of SL, particularly in evening milks, and, during late lactation, HO cows were associated with higher levels of SL. No intertreatment or intercow correlations (coefficient of determination <0.16) were found between SL, milk fat and protein contents, milk production, milk fat globule size, proportion of fatty acids and proteins, body condition, and weight during the entire lactation. Effects of breed, FS, and lactation stage were clearly identified and quantified. Causal mechanisms might involve energy balance and circadian secretion of milk fat globule components.

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hal-01605058 , version 1 (02-10-2017)

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Élise Vanbergue, Luc Delaby, Jean-Louis Peyraud, Ségolène Colette, Yves Gallard, et al.. Effects of breed, feeding system, and lactation stage on milk fat characteristics and spontaneous lipolysis in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 2017, 100 (6), pp.4623-4636. ⟨10.3168/jds.2016-12094⟩. ⟨hal-01605058⟩
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