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Journal Articles Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics Year : 2013

On the existence of a simple yield stress fluid behavior

Guillaume Ovarlez
Julie Goyon
Philippe Coussot
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Materials such as foams, concentrated emulsions, dense suspensions or colloidal gels, are yield stress fluids. Their steady flow behavior, characterized by standard rheometric techniques, is usually modeled by a Herschel-Bulkley law. The emergence of techniques that allow the measurement of their local flow properties (velocity and volume fraction fields) has led to observe new complex behaviors. It was shown that many of these materials exhibit shear banding in a homogeneous shear stress field, which cannot be accounted for by the standard steady-state constitutive laws of simple yield stress fluids. In some cases, it was also observed that the velocity fields under various conditions cannot be modeled with a single constitutive law and that nonlocal models are needed to describe the flows. Doubt may then be cast on any macroscopic characterization of such systems, and one may wonder if any material behaves in some conditions as a Herschel-Bulkley material. In this paper, we address the question of the existence of a simple yield stress fluid behavior. We first review experimental results from the literature and we point out the main factors (physical properties, experimental procedure) at the origin of flow inhomogeneities and nonlocal effects. It leads us to propose a well-defined procedure to ensure that steady-state bulk properties of the materials are studied. We use this procedure to investigate yield stress fluid flows with MRI techniques. We focus on nonthixotropic dense suspensions of soft particles (foams, concentrated emulsions, Carbopol gels). We show that, as long as they are studied in a wide (as compared to the size of the material mesoscopic elements) gap geometry, these materials behave as 'simple yield stress fluids': they are homogeneous, they do not exhibit steady-state shear banding, and their steady flow behavior in simple shear can be modeled by a local continuous monotonic constitutive equation which accounts for flows in various conditions and matches the macroscopic response.
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hal-00716376 , version 1 (19-09-2012)



Guillaume Ovarlez, Sylvie Cohen-Addad, Kapil Krishan, Julie Goyon, Philippe Coussot. On the existence of a simple yield stress fluid behavior. Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics, 2013, 193, pp.68-79. ⟨10.1016/j.jnnfm.2012.06.009⟩. ⟨hal-00716376⟩
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