2.5D Traction Force Microscopy: Imaging three-dimensional cell forces at interfaces and biological applications - Archive ouverte HAL Access content directly
Journal Articles International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology Year : 2023

2.5D Traction Force Microscopy: Imaging three-dimensional cell forces at interfaces and biological applications

Abstract

The forces that cells, tissues, and organisms exert on the surface of a soft substrate can be measured using Traction Force Microscopy (TFM), an important and well-established technique in Mechanobiology. The usual TFM technique (two-dimensional, 2D TFM) treats only the in-plane component of the traction forces and omits the out-of-plane forces at the substrate interfaces (2.5D) that turn out to be important in many biological processes such as tissue migration and tumour invasion. Here, we review the imaging, material, and analytical tools to perform "2.5D TFM" and explain how they are different from 2D TFM. Challenges in 2.5D TFM arise primarily from the need to work with a lower imaging resolution in the z-direction, track fiducial markers in three-dimensions, and reliably and efficiently reconstruct mechanical stress from substrate deformation fields. We also discuss how 2.5D TFM can be used to image, map, and understand the complete force vectors in various important biological events of various length-scales happening at two-dimensional interfaces, including focal adhesions forces, cell diapedesis across tissue monolayers, the formation of three-dimensional tissue structures, and the locomotion of large multicellular organisms. We close with future perspectives including the use of new materials, imaging and machine learning techniques to continuously improve the 2.5D TFM in terms of imaging resolution, speed, and faithfulness of the force reconstruction procedure.
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Dates and versions

hal-04173089 , version 1 (28-07-2023)

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Hélène Delanoë-Ayari, Tetsuya Hiraiwa, Philippe Marcq, J.-P. Rieu, Thuan Beng Saw. 2.5D Traction Force Microscopy: Imaging three-dimensional cell forces at interfaces and biological applications. International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, 2023, 161, pp.106432. ⟨10.1016/j.biocel.2023.106432⟩. ⟨hal-04173089⟩
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