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Journal Articles Proceedings of the ACM on Programming Languages Year : 2022

A Reasonably Gradual Type Theory


Gradualizing the Calculus of Inductive Constructions (CIC) involves dealing with subtle tensions between normalization, graduality, and conservativity with respect to CIC. Recently, GCIC has been proposed as a parametrized gradual type theory that admits three variants, each sacrificing one of these properties. For devising a gradual proof assistant based on CIC, normalization and conservativity with respect to CIC are key, but the tension with graduality needs to be addressed. Additionally, several challenges remain: (1) The presence of two wildcard terms at any type-the error and unknown terms-enables trivial proofs of any theorem, jeopardizing the use of a gradual type theory in a proof assistant; (2) Supporting general indexed inductive families, most prominently equality, is an open problem; (3) Theoretical accounts of gradual typing and graduality so far do not support handling type mismatches detected during reduction; (4) Precision and graduality are external notions not amenable to reasoning within a gradual type theory. All these issues manifest primally in CastCIC, the cast calculus used to define GCIC. In this work, we present an alternative to CastCIC called GRIP. GRIP is a reasonably gradual type theory that addresses the issues above, featuring internal precision and general exception handling. For consistent reasoning about gradual terms, GRIP features an impure sort of types inhabited by errors and unknown terms, and a pure sort of strict propositions. By adopting a novel interpretation of the unknown term that carefully accounts for universe levels, GRIP satisfies graduality for a large and well-defined class of terms, in addition to being normalizing and a conservative extension of CIC. Internal precision supports reasoning about graduality within GRIP itself, for instance to characterize gradual exception-handling terms, and supports gradual subset types. We develop the metatheory of GRIP using a model formalized in Coq, and provide a prototype implementation of GRIP in Agda.
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Dates and versions

hal-03596652 , version 1 (16-03-2022)
hal-03596652 , version 2 (02-09-2022)



Kenji Maillard, Meven Lennon-Bertrand, Nicolas Tabareau, Éric Tanter. A Reasonably Gradual Type Theory. Proceedings of the ACM on Programming Languages, In press, ⟨10.1145/3547655⟩. ⟨hal-03596652v2⟩
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