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Journal Articles International Journal of Humanoid Robotics Year : 2022

Humanoids’feet: state of the art & future directions


Robotic feet play a fundamental role in the walking performance of a biped robot. Feet are essential to maintain dynamic stability and to propel the body during walking. They may ensure stability on uneven terrains. Yet, complex feet are seldom used on humanoids. This paper surveys 36 types of robotic feet we found in the literature. We classified them according to strategy, capabilities, structure, number of degrees of freedom, actuation method of ankle and foot, type of actuator, sensorization and type of control. Subsequently, we analyzed the dynamic and static models of flexible feet. We discussed considerations on foot dynamics or kinematics in the robot’s whole body control system. We analyzed both active joints control for feet including actuated joints, and control for feet with elastic elements (for example, a rubber layer in the sole). Finally, we present some limitations of robotic feet and possible future developments.
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hal-03534274 , version 1 (19-01-2022)



Irene Frizza, Ko Ayusawa, Andrea Cherubini, Hiroshi Kaminaga, Philippe Fraisse, et al.. Humanoids’feet: state of the art & future directions. International Journal of Humanoid Robotics, 2022, 19 (01), pp.2250001. ⟨10.1142/S0219843622500013⟩. ⟨hal-03534274⟩
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