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Preprints, Working Papers, ... Year : 2021

A Unified Framework For Quantum Unforgeability

Abstract

In this paper, we continue the line of work initiated by Boneh and Zhandry at CRYPTO 2013 and EUROCRYPT 2013 in which they formally define the notion of unforgeability against quantum adversaries specifically, for classical message authentication codes and classical digital signatures schemes. We develop a general and parameterised quantum game-based security model unifying unforgeability for both classical and quantum constructions allowing us for the first time to present a complete quantum cryptanalysis framework for unforgeability. In particular, we prove how our definitions subsume previous ones while considering more fine-grained adversarial models, capturing the full spectrum of superposition attacks. The subtlety here resides in the characterisation of a forgery. We show that the strongest level of unforgeability, namely existential unforgeability, can only be achieved if only orthogonal to previously queried messages are considered to be forgeries. In particular, we present a non-trivial attack if any overlap between the forged message and previously queried ones is allowed. We further show that deterministic constructions can only achieve the weaker notion of unforgeability, that is selective unforgeability, against such restricted adversaries, but that selective unforgeability breaks if general quantum adversaries (capable of general superposition attacks) are considered. On the other hand, we show that PRF is sufficient for constructing a selective unforgeable classical primitive against full quantum adversaries. Moreover, we show similar positive results relying on Pseudorandom Unitaries (PRU) for quantum primitives. These results demonstrate the generality of our framework that could be applicable to other primitives beyond the cases analysed in this paper.

Dates and versions

hal-03452715 , version 1 (27-11-2021)

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Mina Doosti, Mahshid Delavar, Elham Kashefi, Myrto Arapinis. A Unified Framework For Quantum Unforgeability. 2021. ⟨hal-03452715⟩
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