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Preprints, Working Papers, ... Year : 2021

Pulsations and flows in tissues: two collective dynamics with simple cellular rules

Raghavan Thiagarajan
Alka Bhat
  • Function : Author
Guillaume Salbreux
Mandar Inamdar

Abstract

Collective motions of epithelial cells in vivo are essential for morphogenesis in developmental biology. Tissues elongate, contract, flow, and oscillate, sculpting embryos. These tissue level dynamics are known, but their physical mechanisms at the cellular level are unclear, with various behaviors that depend on the tissues and species. Moreover, investigations on in vitro tissue behavior usually focus on only one type of cell dynamics and use diverse theoretical approaches, making systematic comparisons between studies challenging. Here, we show that the very same epithelial monolayer of Madine Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells can exhibit two types of tissue kinematics, pulsations, and coherent flows. We also report that these distinct motions can be controlled with internal and external cues by using quantitative live imaging of the acto-myosin cytoskeleton, specific inhibitors, microfabrication, and friction modulation of the substrate. We further demonstrate with a unified vertex model that both behaviors depend on the interplay between velocity alignment and random diffusion of cell polarization. When alignment and diffusion are comparable, a pulsatile flow emerges, whereas the tissue undergoes long-range flows when velocity alignment dominates. We propose that environmental friction, acto-myosin distributions, and cell polarization kinetics serve as the essential factors regulating the dynamics of tissue morphogenesis.

Dates and versions

hal-03427806 , version 1 (14-11-2021)

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Raghavan Thiagarajan, Alka Bhat, Guillaume Salbreux, Mandar Inamdar, Daniel Riveline. Pulsations and flows in tissues: two collective dynamics with simple cellular rules. 2021. ⟨hal-03427806⟩
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