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Journal Articles Nature Geoscience Year : 2021

Birth of a large volcanic edifice offshore Mayotte via lithosphere-scale dyke intrusion

Wayne C Crawford
Christine Deplus
Anne Lemoine
Claudio Satriano
Océane Foix
Angèle Laurent
Manuel Moreira
Aline Peltier
Valérie Ballu

Abstract

Volcanic eruptions shape the Earth's surface and provide a window into deep Earth processes. How the primary asthenospheric melts form, pond and ascend through the lithosphere is, however, still poorly understood. Since 10 May 2018, magmatic activity has occurred offshore eastern Mayotte (North Mozambique channel), associated with large surface displacements, very low frequency earthquakes and exceptionally deep earthquake swarms. Here we present geophysical and marine data from the MAYOBS1 cruise, which reveal that by May 2019, this activity formed a 820 m tall, ~5 km³ volcanic edifice on the seafloor. This is the largest active submarine eruption ever documented. Seismic and deformation data indicate that deep (> 55 km depth) magma reservoirs were rapidly drained through dykes that intruded the entire lithosphere, and that preexisting subvertical faults in the mantle were reactivated beneath an ancient caldera

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Tectonics
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Dates and versions

hal-03409680 , version 1 (29-10-2021)

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Nathalie Feuillet, Stephan Jorry, Wayne C Crawford, Christine Deplus, Isabelle Thinon, et al.. Birth of a large volcanic edifice offshore Mayotte via lithosphere-scale dyke intrusion. Nature Geoscience, 2021, 14 (10), pp.787-795. ⟨10.1038/s41561-021-00809-x⟩. ⟨hal-03409680⟩
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