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Journal Articles AIP Advances Year : 2021

Observation of a superparamagnetic breakdown in gadolinium chloride filled double-walled carbon nanotubes

Abstract

In this article, the magnetic properties of gadolinium chloride-filled double-walled carbon nanotubes (GdCl3@DWNTs) in the temperature range 2-300 K are explored. The temperature-dependent phonon frequencies of the G-band were studied from 80-300 K to investigate the effect of temperature on the magnetic ordering. Temperature-dependent susceptibility measurements show that the GdCl3@DWNTs sample has a pronounced superparamagnetic phase from 83 K. The temperature dependence of the G-band frequency for filled tubes exhibited a distinct difference compared to pristine nanotubes, where a sharp phonon hardening at low temperatures was observed. A correlation between the onset temperature of superparamagnetism and the abrupt G-band phonon hardening in the filled tubes was verified. GdCl3@DWNTs were characterized by a finite remnant magnetization at 300 K which decreased as the temperature was lowered because of the presence of the discontinuous magnetic nanoparticles, providing a superparamagnetic contribution characterized by an S-shaped non-saturating hysteresis loop at 2 K. Remarkably, the onset of superparamagnetism, marked by the bifurcation point, occurred at roughly the same temperature where the G-band phonon frequency showed a pronounced hardening at approximately 80 K, indicating a close correlation between phonon modes and spin clusters.
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Dates and versions

hal-03164783 , version 1 (10-03-2021)

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Siphephile Ncube, Christopher Coleman, Emmanuel Flahaut, Somnath Bhattacharyya, Aletta R. E. Prinsloo, et al.. Observation of a superparamagnetic breakdown in gadolinium chloride filled double-walled carbon nanotubes. AIP Advances, 2021, 11 (3), pp.035206. ⟨10.1063/9.0000128⟩. ⟨hal-03164783⟩
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