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Preprints, Working Papers, ... Year : 2020

Lower bounds for the depth of modular squaring


The modular squaring operation has attracted significant attention due to its potential in constructing cryptographic time-lock puzzles and verifiable delay functions. In such applications, it is important to understand precisely how quickly a modular squaring operation can be computed, even in parallel on dedicated hardware. We use tools from circuit complexity and number theory to prove concrete numerical lower bounds for squaring on a parallel machine, yielding nontrivial results for practical input bitlengths. For example, for $n = 2048$, we prove that every logic circuit (over AND, OR, NAND, NOR gates of fan-in two) computing modular squaring on all $n$-bit inputs (and any modulus that is at least $2^{n−1}$) requires depth (critical path length) at least 12. By a careful analysis of certain exponential Gauss sums related to the low-order bit of modular squaring, we also extend our results to the average case. For example, our results imply that every logic circuit (over any fan-in two basis) computing modular squaring on at least 76% of all 2048-bit inputs (for any RSA modulus that is at least $2^{n−1}$) requires depth at least 9.
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Dates and versions

hal-03038044 , version 1 (03-12-2020)


  • HAL Id : hal-03038044 , version 1


Benjamin Wesolowski, Ryan Williams. Lower bounds for the depth of modular squaring. 2020. ⟨hal-03038044⟩
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