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Journal Articles Molecular Ecology Year : 2018

Identifying genomic hotspots of differentiation and candidate genes involved in the adaptive divergence of pea aphid host races

Julie Jaquiéry

Abstract

Identifying the genomic bases of adaptation to novel environments is a long‐term objective in evolutionary biology. Because genetic differentiation is expected to increase between locally adapted populations at the genes targeted by selection, scanning the genome for elevated levels of differentiation is a first step towards deciphering the genomic architecture underlying adaptive divergence. The pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum is a model of choice to address this question, as it forms a large complex of plant‐specialized races and cryptic species, resulting from recent adaptive radiation. Here, we characterized genomewide polymorphisms in three pea aphid races specialized on alfalfa, clover and pea crops, respectively, which we sequenced in pools (poolseq). Using a model‐based approach that explicitly accounts for selection, we identified 392 genomic hotspots of differentiation spanning 47.3 Mb and 2,484 genes (respectively, 9.12% of the genome size and 8.10% of its genes). Most of these highly differentiated regions were located on the autosomes, and overall differentiation was weaker on the X chromosome. Within these hotspots, high levels of absolute divergence between races suggest that these regions experienced less gene flow than the rest of the genome, most likely by contributing to reproductive isolation. Moreover, population‐specific analyses showed evidence of selection in every host race, depending on the hotspot considered. These hotspots were significantly enriched for candidate gene categories that control host–plant selection and use. These genes encode 48 salivary proteins, 14 gustatory receptors, 10 odorant receptors, five P450 cytochromes and one chemosensory protein, which represent promising candidates for the genetic basis of host–plant specialization and ecological isolation in the pea aphid complex. Altogether, our findings open new research directions towards functional studies, for validating the role of these genes on adaptive phenotypes.
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hal-01892027 , version 1 (10-10-2018)

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Pierre Nouhaud, Mathieu Gautier, Anaïs Gouin, Julie Jaquiéry, Jean Peccoud, et al.. Identifying genomic hotspots of differentiation and candidate genes involved in the adaptive divergence of pea aphid host races. Molecular Ecology, 2018, 27 (16), pp.3287 - 3300. ⟨10.1111/mec.14799⟩. ⟨hal-01892027⟩
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