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Journal Articles Journal of Cleaner Production Year : 2013

Modelling a new, low CO2 emissions, hydrogen steelmaking process

Abstract

In an effort to develop breakthrough technologies that enable drastic reduction in CO2 emissions from steel industry (ULCOS project), the reduction of iron ore by pure hydrogen in a direct reduction shaft furnace was investigated. After experimental and modelling studies, a 2D, axisymmetrical steady-state model called REDUCTOR was developed to simulate a counter-current moving bed reactor in which hematite pellets are reduced by pure hydrogen. This model is based on the numerical solution of the local mass, energy and momentum balances of the gas and solid species by the finite volume method. A single pellet sub-model was included in the global furnace model to simulate the successive reactions (hematite->magnetite ->wustite->iron) involved in the process, using the concept of additive reaction times. The different steps of mass transfer and possible iron sintering at the grain scale were accounted for. The kinetic parameters were derived from reduction experiments carried out in a thermobalance furnace, at different conditions, using small hematite cubes shaped from industrial pellets. Solid characterizations were also performed to further understand the microstrutural evolution. First results have shown that the use of hydrogen accelerates the reduction in comparison to CO reaction, making it possible to design a hydrogen-operated shaft reactor quite smaller than current MIDREX and HYL. Globally, the hydrogen steelmaking route based on this new process is technically and environmentally attractive. CO2 emissions would be reduced by more than 80%. Its future is linked to the emergence of the hydrogen economy.
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Dates and versions

hal-00943356 , version 1 (07-02-2014)

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Andrea Ranzani da Costa, D. Wagner, Fabrice Patisson. Modelling a new, low CO2 emissions, hydrogen steelmaking process. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2013, 46 (May), pp.27-35. ⟨10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.07.045⟩. ⟨hal-00943356⟩
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